Colorectal Cancer Studies

Colorectal Cancer Studies 2017-08-29T16:10:55-03:00

COLORECTAL CANCER STUDY Download files

colorrectalColorectal Cancer (CRC) is a term used for cancer originated in colon or rectum. The colon and rectum wall is composed by several layers. The CRC originates at the inner layer, the intestinal mucosa, composed by epithelial cells. Most of the CRCs develop slowly during several years. Many times they originate from predecessor injures, the colon polyps. A polyp is a benign tumor but some of them, the adenomatous polyps with dysplasia may derive into cancer. If there is cancer inside a polyp it may grow with the time inside the colon or rectum wall. When malign cells are at the colon or rectum wall they may expand to the blood or lymphatic vessels. Once malign cells grow to the blood or lymphatic vessels, they may expand to the adjacent lymphatic ganglions or to the different parts of the body such as the liver. When cancer expands to different parts of the body it is called metastasis. Several types of cancer may begin at colon or rectum. More than 95% of CRC are a cancer known as adenocarcinomas. These cancers begin at the epithelial cells which form the glands at the mucosa layer.

Biomaker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implications
Analysis Methodology*  Test ID
KRAS Routine Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab) S. Sanger CcKRsa
qPCR CcKRqp
NRAS Routine Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab) S. Sanger CcNRsa
qPCR CcNRqp
EGFR Routine Expression Expression Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab) IHQ CcEGih
BRAF Recomended Predictive and
Prognostic
Mutations Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab). Disease Prognostic S. Sanger CcBRsa
qPCR CcBRqp
MSI Recomended Diagnóstico Microsatellite instability Disease Diagnostic Genotypification CcMSIgn
PI3KCA In research
Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab). Disease Prognostic S. Sanger CcPKsa
qPCR CcPKqp
PTEN In research
Predictive Amplification Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab) IHQ CcPTih

 

Biomarkers Colorectal Cancer Panel

Panel Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implication
Analysis Methodology* Test ID
Colorectal Cancer Panel

(22 genes)

Recomended Predictive Mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, ERBB2, PTEN, NRAS, STK11, MAP2K1, ALK, DDR2, CTNNB1, MET, TP53, SMAD4, FBXW7, FGFR3, NOTCH1, ERBB4, FGFR1, FGFR2 Disease Prognostic NGS CcPCng

 

* Sanger: Sanger Sequencing – NGS: Next-Generation Sequencing – IHC: Immunohistochemistry– qPCR: Real Time PCR

1. What do the statistics indicate on CRC cancer?

CRC is the third most frequent cancer in Argentina after breast cancer and prostate cancer. According the IARC (International Research Agency of Cancer- WHO) indicators in the country, 11000 new cases have arisen in 2008 of which 5800 of them were men and 5200 women.

 

2. Which are the risk factors of CRC?

The risk of having CRC increases when people get old. More than 90% of cases correspond to individuals of more than 50 years old.

Besides age, there are other risk factors that should be considered:

 

3. Which are the treatments of CRC?

Depending on the localization and CRC stage, currently available treatments are the following:

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Aimed therapies (example.Anti- EGFR therapy)

Mutational stage of Biomarkers Kras/Nras in the 2, 3 and 4 exons must be determined in all metastatic CRC patients with the administration of an anti-EGFR therapy because this therapy must only be administrated when there are no mutations in those genes.

Stintzing, S. Phase III FIRE-3 trial data show most patients with wild-type RAS metastatic colorectal cancer benefit from first-line FOLFIRI plus cetuximab treatment. Amsterdam: ESMO @ ECC; 2013..

This section presents a classification of molecular studies currently available. This website information has been supervised by our BIOMAKERS specialists’ team. The recommendations present here do not aim to substitute the guidelines of medical societies or the oncological treatment guidelines currently available.

Consulted Sources:

National Institute of Cancer
Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases
PUBMED
American Cancer Society
My Cancer Genome

estudios
Cáncer de Pulmón
Cáncer Colorrectal
Cáncer de Mama y Ovarios
Cáncer de Tiroides
Cáncer Melanoma
Tumores Sistema Nervioso
Leucemia Mieloide
Linfoma y Mieloma
Estroma Gastrointestinal
Tumores Hereditarios
Toxicidad y Metabolismo
Paneles Tumorales
barra
TEST
TEST