Lung Cancer Studies

Lung Cancer Studies 2017-08-29T16:10:55+00:00

LUNG CANCER STUDY Download files

cancerdepulmonLung Cancer: Cancer is a disease in which the cells of the body begin to multiply with no control. If the cancer originates in the lungs, it is known as lung cancer.

The two main types of lung cancer are lung cancer of non-small cells (NSCLC, for its acronym in English) and lung cancer of small cells. These types are based on the appearance of cells under a microscope. NSCLC is much more common than lung cancer of small cells. These types of cancers grow differently and require different treatments.

Biomarker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration Therapeutic Implications Analysis Methodology * Test ID
EGFR Routine Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI; Afatinib, Gefitinib, Erlotinib) S. Sanger PlEGsa
EML4-ALK Routine Predictive Rearrangements Sensitivity to ALK Inhibitors

(Crizotinib, Ceritinib)

FISH PlEMALfh
IHQ PlEMALih
BRAF Recomended Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to BRAF Inhibitors (Vemurafenib, Dabrafenib) S. Sanger PlBRsa
qPCR PlBRqp
RET Recomended Predictive Rearrangements Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Vandetanib, Sunitinib, Sorafenib) FISH PlFRETfh
HER2 Recomended Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (2nd generation) (Afatinib) S. Sanger PlHR2sa
ROS-1 Recomended Predictive Rearrangements Sensitivity to ALK Inhibitors (Crizotinib) IHQ PlRSih
FISH PlRSfh
cKit Recomendado Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Imatinib, Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Nilotinib) S. Sanger PlCKsa
KRAS Recomended Prognostic/Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies (Cetuximab, Panitumumab) Disease Prognostic S. Sanger PlKRsa
PI3KCA In research
Predictive Mutations TKI resistance and anti-EGFR antibodies S. Sanger PlPIsa
MET In research Predictive Amplification Sensitivity to MET inhibitors and TKI resistance FISH PlMTfh
DDR2 In research Predictive Mutations Tyrosine kinase Sensitivity, BCR/ABL, SRC, c-Kit, Eph  (Dasatinib) S. Sanger PlDDsa
PD-L1 In research Predictive Overexpression Anti-PD-L1 and anti-PD-1 Sensitivity IHQ PlPDih
PTEN  In research Predictive Overexpression Sensitivity to anti-EGFR antibodies IHQ PlPTih

 

Biomarkers Lung Cancer Panel

Panel Evidence Type Molecular Alteration Therapeutic Implications Analysis Methodology* Test ID
Lung Cancer Panel  (22 genes) Recomended Predictive Mutations in KRAS, EGFR, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1, ERBB2, PTEN, NRAS, STK11, MAP2K1, ALK, DDR2, CTNNB1, MET, TP53, SMAD4, FBXW7, FGFR3, NOTCH1, ERBB4, FGFR1, FGFR2 Disease Prognostic NGS PlPPng

 

* Sanger: Sanger Sequencing – NGS: Next-Generation Sequencing – IHC: Immunohistochemistry– FISH: In situ hybridization – qPCR: Real Time PCR

1. What do the statistics about lung cancer indicate?

  • In Argentina, the incidence of lung cancer is 10,296 cases (9.8%). This data place lung cancer in fourth place in both sexes.
  • Lung cancer mostly affects people between 60 and 65 years. Less than 15% of cases occur in people under 30 years.

 

2. What are the treatments for lung cancer?

  • Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Targeted therapy. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a role in growth, proliferation and cell motility. EGFR inhibitor drugs were developed (tyrosine kinase inhibitors, TKI) that have been shown to improve survival in patients with advanced disease and recurrences. The status of the biomarker EGFR exons 18, 19, 20 and 21 must be determined in all patients with metastatic NSCLC where administration of a TKI therapy is considered, as this therapy should only be given when there are certain mutations in this gene. Another molecule inhibitor is anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) an oncogene which is positive in about 5 to 13% of patients with NSCLC, and its inhibition has a beneficial impact on survival.
  • Immunotherapy, also called biological therapy, is designed to stimulate the body’s natural defenses to fight cancer. It uses materials made by the body or made in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function.

Drugs which block the PD-1 and PD-L1 tumor cells may use natural pathways in the body to help avoid being detected and destroyed by the immune system. For example, they can express a protein called PD-L1 on their surfaces that help them evade the immune system. New drugs that block the PD-L1 or PD-1 protein found on T cells, can help the immune system recognize and attack tumor cells. The anti-PD-1 have been shown to reduce or slow the growth of some tumors.

This section presents a classification of molecular studies currently available. This website information has been supervised by our BIOMAKERS specialists’ team. The recommendations present here do not aim to substitute the guidelines of medical societies or the oncological treatment guidelines currently available.

Consulted Sources:

National Institute of Cancer
Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases
PUBMED
American Cancer Society
My Cancer Genome

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