Melanoma Studies

Melanoma Studies 2017-08-29T16:10:55+00:00

MELANOMA STUDY Download files

melanomaMelanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in certain types of cells in the skin. There are two main types of skin tumors: carcinoma and melanoma. Carcinomas (basal and squamous) are the most common. Melanomas are much less common, but its evolution may be the worst prognosis. It is more likely to invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body than other types of skin cancer. Melanoma can also occur in the mucous membranes (moist thin layers of tissue that cover areas such as lips). It is curable, provided it is diagnosed early. It is essentially manifested by the appearance of a small pigmented area on healthy, or changing the size or color of a mole (nevus) skin. In this type of tumor, cells can break away from the place of origin, travel through the blood or lymphatic or capillaries vessels or stay in different organs (metastasis). Melanomas arise from melanocytes, cells that produce pigment (melanin) normal skin, in areas adjacent to a mole or directly on a pre-existing mole. Some people have an increased risk for melanoma: those with very white skin that always get red and never tan; those with numerous moles, atypical moles that have direct relatives and family members who have had melanoma.

Biomaker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implication
Analysis Methodology*
Test ID
BRAF Routine Predictive Mutations BRAF and MEK Inhibitors S. Sanger MlBRsa
cKIT Recomended Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Imatinib, Sunitinib, Sorafenib and Nilotinib) S. Sanger MlCKsa
NRAS In research
Predictive Mutations Sorafenib-Tivantinib Sensitivity S. Sanger MlNRsa


*S. Sanger: Sanger Sequencing – qPCR: Real Time PCR

1. What do the statistics about melanoma indicate?

Skin cancer is by far the most common of all cancers. Melanoma is less than 2% of cases of skin cancer but causes the majority of deaths from this cancer.

2. What are the treatments for melanoma?

Depending on the stage of the cancer and other factors, treatment options may include:

  • Surgery
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy: About half of all melanomas presents changes (mutations) in the BRAF gene. These changes cause the gene to produce an altered BRAF protein that sends a signal that stimulates the growth and reproduction in a rapid way of melanoma cells. Some drugs target this and related proteins. If you have been diagnosed with advanced melanoma, which can be a sign if melanoma is obtained by biopsy tests done to determine whether the cells contain a BRAF mutation. Drugs that target the BRAF protein (or proteins MEK) are usually not effective in patients whose melanomas have a normal BRAF gene. The MEK gene is on the same signaling pathway within cells of the BRAF gene. Therefore, drugs that block the MEK proteins can also help treat melanomas with BRAF gene changes. The MEK inhibitor has been shown to reduce some melanomas with BRAF changes. A small number of melanomas have changes in a gene called c-kit that helps them grow. These genetic changes are more common in melanomas that arise in certain parts of the body. Some targeted drugs such as imatinib and nilotinib may affect the cells with changes in the C-KIT.
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy

This section presents a classification of molecular studies currently available. This website information has been supervised by our BIOMAKERS specialists’ team. The recommendations present here do not aim to substitute the guidelines of medical societies or the oncological treatment guidelines currently available.

Consulted Sources:

National Institute of Cancer
Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases
American Cancer Society
My Cancer Genome

Cáncer de Pulmón
Cáncer Colorrectal
Cáncer de Mama y Ovarios
Cáncer de Tiroides
Cáncer Melanoma
Tumores Sistema Nervioso
Leucemia Mieloide
Linfoma y Mieloma
Estroma Gastrointestinal
Tumores Hereditarios
Toxicidad y Metabolismo
Paneles Tumorales