Myeloid Leukemia Studies

Myeloid Leukemia Studies 2017-08-29T16:10:54-03:00

leucemiaLeukemia is a blood cells neoplasia. Most blood cells are produced at the bone marrow. In Leukemia, immature blood cells become malignant. These cells do not work as they should be and infect healthy blood cells at the bone marrow. Different types of leukemia depend on the type of blood cell they are originated in. White Blood cells are the most common type of cell that becomes malignant. However, Red blood cells (cells that transport oxygen from lungs to the rest of the body) and platelets (cells that clot blood) may also derive into cancer. Leukemia is most common in adults older than 55 years old but also it is the most common cancer in kids younger than 15 years old. Treatment and prognosis of leukemia depend on the type of affected blood cell and if it is chronic or acute leukemia.

 

ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA (AML) STUDY Download files

leucemiaAAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) is known by many other names, including acute myelocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, acute granulocytic leukemia and acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. The term “acute” means that the leukemia can progress rapidly and, if not treated, would probably be fatal in a few months. The term “myeloid” refers to the type of cell from which the leukemia originates. Most cases of AML arise from cells that turn into white blood cells (but not in lymphocytes), but in some cases AML develops from other types of blood-forming cells.

AML starts in the bone marrow (the soft inner part of certain bones, where new blood cells are produced), but in most cases it quickly moves into the blood. Sometimes it spreads to other parts of the body including the lymph nodes, liver, spleen, central nervous system (brain and spinal cord), and testicles. Other types of cancer can start in these organs and then spread to the bone marrow, but cancer that starts elsewhere and then spreads to the bone marrow is not leukemia.

Biomaker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implication
Analysis Methodology*
Test ID
AML1/ETO  Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Favorable prognostic qPCR LmaAMqp
BCR-ABL1 Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Unfavorable prognostic factor qPCR LmaABqp
CBFB/MYH11  Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Favorable prognostic qPCR LmaCMqp
CBFB/MYH11  Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Favorable prognostic FISH LmaCMfh
CEPBA Routine Prognostic Mutations Favorable prognostic S. Sanger LmaSEPsa
ckit Routine Prognostic Mutations Favorable prognostic S. Sanger LmaCKsa
20q Routine Prognostic Deletion Favorable prognostic FISH Lma20qfh
 -5, 5q-, -7, 7q- Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Unfavorable prognostic factor FISH Lma5q7q
11q23 -non t(9;11) Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Unfavorable prognostic factor FISH Lma11q23fh
FLT3 Routine Prognostic Mutations Unfavorable prognostic factor S. Sanger LmaFLsa
NPM1 Routine Prognostic Mutations Favorable prognostic S. Sanger LmaNPMsa
PML/RARA  Routine Prognostic Rearrangements Favorable prognostic qPCR LmaLqp
IDH1/2 Routine Prognostic Mutations Favorable prognostic S. Sanger LmaIDsa

 

*Sanger: Sanger Sequencing – FISH: In situ hybridization – qPCR: Real Time PCR

1. What do the statistics on LMA indicate?

Acute myeloid leukemia is a disease that affects older people and is uncommon in people younger than 45 years. The average age of a patient with AML is about 67 years.

AML is slightly more common in men than in women, but the average lifetime risk in both sexes is less than half of 1%.

 

2. What are the risk factors in AML?

There are many factors associated with AML:

  • Smoking
  • Exposure to certain chemicals
  • Certain chemotherapy drugs
  • Radiation exposure
  • Certain blood disorders
  • Genetic syndromes

Some syndromes that are present at birth caused by genetic mutations (abnormal changes) appear to increase the risk of AML. These include:

  • Fanconi Anemia
  • Bloom Syndrome
  • Ataxia-telangiectasia
  • Anemia Diamond – Blackfan
  • Shwachman-Diamond syndrome
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Severe congenital neutropenia (also called Kostmann syndrome).

Some problems with chromosomes that are present at birth are also associated with an increased risk of AML, including:

  • Down syndrome (born with an extra copy of chromosome 21)
  • Trisomy 8 (born with an extra copy of chromosome 8)
  • Family history
  • Although it is not believed that most cases of AML have a strong genetic link, having a close relative (father, mother, brother or sister) with AML increases your risk of developing the disease
  • A person who has an identical twin who suffered from AML before the age of one year presents a very high risk of developing AML also
  • An elderly
  • AML can occur at any age, but it more commonly occurs as people age
  • Male sex
  • Uncertain risk, unproven or controversial
  • Other factors that have been studied to try to determine if they have a possible link to AML include:
    •  Exposure to electromagnetic fields (such as living near power lines)
    •  Occupational exposure to diesel, gasoline and certain other chemicals and solvents
    •  Exposure to herbicides or pesticides

 

3. What are the treatments for AML?

  • Chemotherapy
  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Stem cell transplant
  • Treatments for targeted therapies are being evaluated in clinical trials

CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA (CML) STUDY Download files

leucemiaBChronic myeloid leukemia (CML), also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a cancer that starts in certain blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. In CML a genetic change in one (immature) early version of myeloid cells (the cells that produce red cells, platelets and most white blood cell types (except lymphocytes). This change forms an abnormal gene called BCR-ABL, making the cell in a CML cell. Leukemia cells grow and divide, they accumulate in bone marrow and extend into the blood. During this time, the cells may also invade other parts of the body, including the spleen. CML is a leukemia whose growth is relatively slow, but it can also become a fast-growing acute leukemia that is difficult to treat.

Biomaker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implications
Analysis Methodology*
Test ID
BCR-ABL1 Routine Diagnostic and Predictive Rearrangements Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Imatinib) qPCR LmcAB922qp
BCR-ABL1 Routine Diagnostic and Predictive Mutations Sensitivity to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (Dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib) qPCR LmcABqp

 

* qPCR: Real Time PCR

1. What do the statistics on the CML indicate?

Just over 10% of all new cases of leukemia are chronic myeloid leukemia.
The average age at diagnosis of CML is approximately 64 years. Almost half of the cases are diagnosed in people 65 and older.

 

2. What are the treatments for CML?

  • Targeted therapies: The CML cells contain an oncogene BCR-ABL, which is not found in normal cells. This gene produces a protein BCR-ABL, which causes CML cells to grow and reproduce uncontrollably. BCR-ABL is a type of protein known as tyrosine kinase. Medications known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors that target the BCR-ABL protein is the standard treatment for CML. These include: Imatinib, Dasatinib, Nilotinib, Bosutinib, Ponatinib.
  • Interferon Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiotherapy
  • Surgery
  • Stem cell transplant

This section presents a classification of molecular studies currently available. This website information has been supervised by our BIOMAKERS specialists’ team. The recommendations present here do not aim to substitute the guidelines of medical societies or the oncological treatment guidelines currently available.

Consulted Sources:

National Institute of Cancer
Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases
PUBMED
American Cancer Society
My Cancer Genome

estudios
Cáncer de Pulmón
Cáncer Colorrectal
Cáncer de Mama y Ovarios
Cáncer de Tiroides
Cáncer Melanoma
Tumores Sistema Nervioso
Leucemia Mieloide
Linfoma y Mieloma
Estroma Gastrointestinal
Tumores Hereditarios
Toxicidad y Metabolismo
Paneles Tumorales
barra
TEST
TEST