Thyroid Cancer Studies

Thyroid Cancer Studies 2017-08-29T16:10:55-03:00

THYROID CANCER STUDY Download files

tiroidesThyroid cancer is a cancer that originates in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located below the thyroid cartilage at the front of the neck. In most people you can not see or feel it. This gland has two lobes, the right lobe and left lobe, which are connected by a narrow isthmus. The thyroid uses iodine, a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, to help make several hormones. Thyroid hormones do the following functions: control heart rate, body temperature and the rate at which food is converted into energy (metabolism) and control the amount of calcium in the blood.

The thyroid has two major cell types: follicular cells and C-cells. Other less common cells in the thyroid gland include immune system cells (lymphocytes) and supporting cells (stromal). Each cell type generates different cancers. The differences are important because they affect how serious the cancer and the type of treatment needed. In the thyroid gland can cause many types of growths and tumors. Most of these are benign, but others are malignant (i.e.,) can spread to nearby tissues and other body parts.

There are several types of thyroid cancer. Papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma (sporadic or familial) and anaplastic carcinoma.

Biomaker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implication
Analysis Methodology*
Test ID
BRAF Recomended Diagnostic Mutations Papillary carcinoma S. Sanger TrBRsa
qPCR TrBRqp
KRAS Recomended Diagnostic Mutations Papillary, follicular and anaplastic carcinomas S. Sanger TrKRsa
HRAS Recomended Diagnostic Mutations Papillary, follicular and anaplastic carcinomas S. Sanger TrHRsa
NRAS Recomended Diagnostic Mutations Papillary, follicular and anaplastic carcinomas S. Sanger TrNRsa
RET Recomended Diagnostic Rearrangements Papillary carcinoma FISH TrRTfh
PAX8 Recomended Diagnostic Rearrangements Follicular Carcinoma FISH TrPX8fh
RET Recomended Diagnostic Mutations Medullary thyroid cancer S. Sanger TrMRETsa

 

* Sanger: Sanger Sequencing – FISH: In situ hybridization – qPCR: Real Time PCR

1. What do the statistics about thyroid cancer indicate?

Thyroid cancer is usually diagnosed at a younger age compared to most other cancers that affect adults. Almost two out of three cases are in people under 55 years old. Approximately 2% of thyroid cancers occur in children and adolescents.

2. What are the risk factors for thyroid cancer?

Among the risk factors for thyroid cancer include the following:

3. What are the treatments for thyroid cancer?

The therapies are associated with each type of thyroid cancer as follows:

a. Papillary carcinoma
Most cancers are treated with the removal of the thyroid gland. Treatment after surgery depends on the stage of cancer:

  • Radioactive iodine therapy
  • External radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy: Results of drug response variable associated with the BRAF mutational biomarker study.

b. Follicular carcinoma

  • Surgery
  • Radioactive iodine therapy
  • External radiation
  • Chemotherapy
  • Thyroid Hormone Therapy
  • Targeted therapy: Results of drug response variable associated with the BRAF mutational biomarker study.

c. Sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma
Stages I and II:

  • Removal of the thyroid gland
  • Radioactive iodine therapy
  • Thyroid Hormone Therapy

Stages III and IV:

  • External radiation

d. Medullary thyroid genetic familiar carcinoma: Genetic tests in medullary thyroid cancer: Ask your doctor about genetic counseling and testing. Genetic testing can find mutations in the RET gene. If you have one of these mutations, it is important that close family members (children, brothers, sisters and parents) tests are also done. Because almost all children and adults with mutations in this gene suffer MTC at some point, most doctors agree that anyone who files a mutation in the RET gene is subjected to removal of the thyroid to prevent ERM as early as possible after getting the test results. This includes children, as some inherited forms of MTC affect children and pre-adolescents. Total thyroidectomy can prevent this cancer in people with RET mutations that have not yet experienced anything. This means that the thyroid hormone replacement for life is required.

e. Anaplastic carcinoma

  • Surgery
  • External radiation
  • Chemotherapy

This section presents a classification of molecular studies currently available. This website information has been supervised by our BIOMAKERS specialists’ team. The recommendations present here do not aim to substitute the guidelines of medical societies or the oncological treatment guidelines currently available.

Consulted Sources:

National Institute of Cancer
Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases
PUBMED
American Cancer Society
My Cancer Genome

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