Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) Studies

Tumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) Studies 2017-08-29T16:10:54+00:00

TUMORS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STUDY Download files

sistemanerviosoTumors of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are masses of abnormal cells in the brain that have grown out of control. In most other parts of the body, it is very important to distinguish between benign and malignant tumors. Benign tumors do not grow into nearby tissues or spread to distant areas, so in other parts of the body are almost never life threatening. One of the main reasons that malignant tumors are so dangerous is that they can spread throughout the body. Although tumors of the nervous system rarely spread to other parts of the body, instead most of these can be spread through brain tissue. Even so-called benign tumors can, as they grow, cause pressure and destroy normal brain tissue, causing damage that often results in disability and sometimes death.

Tumors that originate in the brain (primary tumors) are not the same as those tumors that start in other organs and then spread to the brain (metastatic tumors or secondary tumors). In adults, metastatic nervous system tumors are in reality, more common than primary. Primary tumors of the nervous system can begin in almost any tissue or cell type within the brain or spinal cord. Some tumors have a combination of cell types.

Gliomas are a group of tumors that start in glial cells. Several tumors can be considered gliomas, including glioblastoma (also known as glioblastoma multiforme), astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas. About three in 10 of all brain tumors are gliomas. Gliomas are brain tumors that grow faster.

Meningiomas arise from the meninges (the layers of tissue that surround the outside of the brain and spinal cord). About one in three primary brain tumors and spinal cord tumors are meningiomas. These are the most common brain tumor in adults.

Biomaker Evidence Type Molecular Alteration
Therapeutic Implication
Analysis Methodology*
Test ID
1p19q Routine Diagnostic Rearrangements Oligodendroglioma diagnostic FISH Sn1p19qfh
IDH1/2 Recomended Diagnostic Mutations Glioma II and III and secodary GBMs diagnostic S. Sanger SnIDsa
MGMT Recomended Predictive Promoter Methylation Alkylating agents response Methylation/S. Sanger SnMGmtsa
10q23 In research
Diagnostic Deletion Glioblastoma diagnostic FISH Sn10q23fh

 

*Sanger: Sanger Sequencing – NGS: Next-Generation Sequencing – FISH: In situ hybridization

1. What do the statistics on CNS tumors indicate?

In general, the probability that a person suffering from a malignant tumor of the brain or spinal cord in the course of their life is less than 1% (about one in 140 to one man and one in 180 for a woman).

 

2. What are the risk factors for CNS tumors?

Most brain tumors are not associated with any known risk factors and have no obvious cause. However, there are some factors that can increase the risk of brain tumors. One is radiation exposure, which is the best known risk factor for the development of brain tumors. Family history related to hereditary conditions are also associated with increased risks of certain types of tumors including: neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau.

 

3. What are the treatments for CNS tumors?

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted therapy. Bevacizumab is an antibody that attacks the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a protein that helps tumors form new blood vessels to get nutrients (a process called angiogenesis). Tumors need new blood vessels to grow. Studies have shown that when chemotherapy is added, this medicine may help extend the time it takes for certain (especially glioblastomas) brain tumors begin to grow back after surgery. Everolimus works by blocking a cell protein known as mTOR, which normally helps cells to grow and divide into new cells. For astrocytoma subependymal giant cells (SEGAs) that can not be completely removed by surgery, you can shrink the tumor or slow its growth for some time, although it is unclear if it can help people with these tumors live longer.
  • Other medications

This section presents a classification of molecular studies currently available. This website information has been supervised by our BIOMAKERS specialists’ team. The recommendations present here do not aim to substitute the guidelines of medical societies or the oncological treatment guidelines currently available.

Consulted Sources:

National Institute of Cancer
Center for Control and Prevention of Diseases
PUBMED
American Cancer Society
My Cancer Genome

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